Abstract. The purpose of this research paper is to explore the different management methods of various countries as to how to control the spread of COVID-19. This report investigates a list of nine countries and analyzes their forms of epidemiological management and control.
Index Terms: Coronavirus, COVID-19, Epidemic, Epidemiology, Pandemic, SARS-CoV-2.
According to the New York Times, countries such as New Zealand, Finland, and Germany, have significantly fewer cases and lower rates of infections compared to countries like the U.S, Britain, France, and Spain (Taub, 2020). Why are some countries effective at managing the COVID-19 pandemic, while others are not? It’s essential to analyze the epidemiological methods of several countries to get a better understanding of why some methods are successful.
Coronavirus disease 2019, identified as SARS-CoV-2, also known as COVID-19, is a contagious viral disease first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 (Sauer, n.d.). It is a strain of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, believed to have zoonotic origins. On January 5th, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported it as a “pneumonia of unknown cause.” In March of 2020, WHO declared it as a pandemic. Since then, the disease has spread globally.
The disease’s symptoms appear within 14 days of exposure to the virus, with a median time of 4 to 5 days (CDC, 2020). As reported by Johns Hopkins University, COVID-19 symptoms range from mild to severe and include cough, fever, chills, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, etc. (Sauer, n.d.). In rare, more extreme cases, COVID-19 can lead to severe respiratory problems, kidney failure, or death. The disease is diagnosed and confirmed through a laboratory test, as it often assimilates the Influenza virus or a cold. Therefore, physical diagnosis is not sufficient to determine infection. Methods of prevention include good hygiene, quarantining, respiratory etiquette, and physical distancing. The use of face masks is also recommended in public settings to minimize the spread and risk of transmission.
The novel coronavirus mainly spreads through droplets released into the air when an infected individual coughs or comes into close contact with another person (World Health Organization, 2020a). Thus physical distancing is paramount to avoid contamination and prevent the spread. These droplets travel a few feet and fall into surfaces, hence why the virus may also spread via contaminated surfaces, although it’s not the main route of transmission.
II. Overview of the pandemic in various countries
The COVID-19 disease has affected the entire world; hence it quickly became an ongoing pandemic. In order to get a general overview of how this disease has spread, a small list of nine countries has been chosen, which are the following: United States, United Kingdom, South Korea, China, Germany, New Zealand, Finland, Nicaragua, and Vietnam. This list encompasses western and eastern countries with democratic and authoritarian forms of government. The multiple figures below illustrate a table and various graphs containing information about each country…
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